Tanzania’s President John Magufuli has urged women to stop taking birth control pills, saying the country needs more people.
“Women can now give up contraceptive methods,” Mr Magufuli said.
Opposition MP Cecil Mwambe has criticised the comments, saying they contradicted the country’s health policy.
Tanzania has a population of around 53 million people, with 49% of them living on less than $2 (£1.50) a day.
On average, a woman in Tanzania has more than five children, among the highest rates in the world.
The day after Mr Magufuli’s comments, speaker of parliament Job Ndugai banned female lawmakers from wearing fake nails and eye-lashes in parliament.
The new regulations also ban women MPs from wearing short dresses and jeans. Female visitors to parliament will also be expected to adhere to the dress code.