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I have varicose veins?

Halima J

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Arteries are pathways that bring oxygen rich blood from the heart to the entire body. Veins bring blood that has no oxygen back up to the heart. Under normal conditions, the actions of the leg muscles causing movement help circulate the blood through the veins and back toward the heart. But with varicose veins, the walls of the veins in the legs are weakened. Usually, these veins are near the skin’s surface where they protrude and are more easily visible.
One also has tiny valves (like tiny propellers) inside the veins, just as you have valves inside your heart. With varicose veins, the valves inside the veins are damaged and do not function properly. Gravity can then cause the blood to “pool” in the vein, which means the blood stays in the veins, becoming stagnant there and making them bulge out.  
Varicose veins can lead to venous thrombosis, which is the medical term for a blood clot. When this occurs, circulation becomes poor and may lead to:
1.      swollen ankles, feet and legs
2.      scaly, itchy skin
3.      darkening of the skin
4.      changes in temperature in the legs and feet
5.      Sores and ulcers on the skin, called venous stasis ulcers.
Treatment and prevention entail;
1.      Treatment includes raising one’s legs when sitting. This may help reduce the pain, swelling and may help prevent getting varicose veins at all.
2.      When sitting watching TV or reading or even at the computer, one should remember to put his or her feet up on a chair or footstool, the higher the better.  
Prevention of varicose veins includes the following recommendations:
1.      Take breaks from standing.
2.      Walking is better than standing still all day.
3.      Avoidance of wearing tight knee hose or knee socks, and tight girdles which all impair circulation.
4.      Avoidance of  sitting with  legs crossed.
5.      Each day one should lie on the floor or bed near a wall and put feet up on the wall. Lie there for at least fifteen minutes each day.

I’am suffering from breast pain

I am about 22 years old in a boarding school and always before my menses, I experience breast swelling and pain. Please advice?
Queen H

What you are experiencing is premenstrual swelling and tenderness of your breasts that occurs during the second half of the menstrual cycle. Symptoms of premenstrual breast tenderness may range from mild to severe. Symptoms typically peak just before each menstrual period and improve immediately after or during the menstrual period. Premenstrual breast tenderness and swelling probably occur to some degree in nearly all women. Symptoms severe enough to cause concern or limit function may occur in many women during their childbearing years.

Causes
1.Menstrual cycle
2.Estrogen medications
3.Adolescent pregnancy
4.Early pregnancy

Some tips you can use are;
1.Eating a lower fat diet
2.Avoiding caffeine
3.Avoiding salt 1 – 2 weeks before your period starts
4.Daily exercise
5.      You can also perform a breast self-examination every month.
6.      A well-fitting bra should be worn day and night to provide good breast support.
7.      The effectiveness of vitamin E, vitamin B6, and herbal preparations such as evening primrose oil are somewhat controversial and should be discussed with your health care provider.
8.      Pills and analgesics may be prescribed to decrease symptoms.

Visit your doctor if
1.You have new, unusual, or changing lumps in breast tissue.
2.You have one-sided (unilateral) lumps in breast tissue.
3.You have discharges from your nipple, especially if it is a bloody or brown discharge.
4.Your symptoms are interfering with your ability to sleep.

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